To err—and therefore, to regret—is human. Now, a new study suggests that rodents are also capable of pining over what might have been. Researchers say the insight could help improve animal models of bad decisions, such as drug or alcohol use that leads to addiction.Our ability to experience regret depends on what neuroscientists describe as “mental time travel”—casting our thoughts into the past or future to reconstruct or fabricate scenarios, says A. David Redish, a neuroscientist at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. Although researchers once thought this ability was unique to primates and humans, Redish’s lab and other groups have demonstrated that rodents also perform a kind of mental time travel as they learn to navigate through mazes. Before making decisions about which way to turn, for example, rats pause to retrace their steps by reactivating patterns of brain activity established in previous explorations.Still, when graduate student Adam Steiner told Redish that rodents in his lab appeared to be glancing wistfully back at a location where they’d missed an opportunity for a favorite meal, calling the behavior “regret” seemed far-fetched, Redish says. For one thing, the animals could just as easily have been displaying disappointment when their expectations of getting a treat were dashed, he says. To qualify as regret, Steiner needed to demonstrate that the animals recognized that their misfortune had resulted directly from their own errors.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)So Steiner and Redish devised a task involving a circular runway with four spokes and called it “Restaurant Row.” They placed feeding machines that dispensed different flavored food pellets at the end of each spoke: cherry, chocolate, banana, or plain. (Preferences vary by rodent.) Each rat was given 1 hour per day to feed, and its task was to figure out how to get as much to eat as possible.As the rats became accustomed to Restaurant Row, they learned that a tone indicated how long they would have to wait for their pellets to be dispensed at any given spoke—a randomly selected interval of between 1 and 45 seconds. A higher pitch meant a longer delay, and it was up to the rats to decide if the wait was worth it. If they moved on, the countdown would stop and the offer of food was rescinded.To test whether the animals experienced regret, Redish and Steiner watched the rats keenly on the occasions when they left one restaurant hungry only to wait even longer at the next one. If the rat had left a restaurant that had a wait above its established threshold and then had to wait again at the next stop, it was a reasonable decision and should merely inspire disappointment, not regret, they hypothesized. After all, the animal had made a reasonable decision to move on to the next stop on the restaurant wheel after a lengthy wait yielded nothing. But if the rat had left a restaurant with a waiting time below its threshold—only to encounter a far longer wait at the next spoke, it had made a bona fide error of judgment, and regret would be appropriate.As predicted, the rats behaved differently in disappointing, versus regrettable, scenarios, the team reports this month in Nature Neuroscience. In the disappointing scenarios, the animals looked toward their own meals, or sometimes toward the next restaurant. Under more regrettable conditions, the rats did indeed cast wistful-seeming backward glances toward the previous spoke. “It was like Homer Simpson going, ‘D’oh!,’ ” Redish says.The next task was to determine what was going on inside the rodents’ brains. Redish and Steiner implanted minute electrodes into a brain region associated with regret in monkeys and humans, called the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). People with damage in this area often do not experience regret, Redish notes.Using a computer algorithm trained to decode the rats’ neural activity, the team found that neurons in the OFC fired in a pattern associated with the previous restaurant when the rats were looking backward, suggesting that the rodents were indeed preoccupied with what might have been, Redish says. Lingering on past errors didn’t seem to improve the rats’ future choices. Instead of skipping the long wait in the new restaurant and trying a third option, they tended to stick it out, he says.Understanding the subtleties that underlie decision-making in rodents could help researchers who study addiction develop better models, Redish says. At its core, addiction represents decision-making gone wrong, he says.The researchers did a “great job” of designing a task that can discriminate between the regret of making a poor decision and the disappointment that results when one is punished despite making all the right choices, says Alex Vaughan, a neuroscientist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. The task also nicely mimicked the types of decisions animals must make as they forage in the wild, he notes.A vital next question is how information about regret encoded by neurons in the OFC influences decision-making in the rest of the brain, Vaughan says. “The OFC appears to carry a lot of varied information,” he notes, and although the activity that Redish and colleagues detected is intriguing, “discovering whether and how the animal uses each kind of information in other parts of the brain is still very much an ongoing task in the field.”
IKEA has just brought in the man who was heading its largest market to kickstart its newest one.Peter Betzel, till recently heading the furniture retailer’s business in Germany, will now take charge of operations in Asia’s third-largest economy, the company said in a statement on March 12. Betzel takes over from Juvencio Maeztu, who helped set up IKEA’s India business and is now moving to a global role as its CFO and deputy CEO.Read it at Quartz Related Items
Jaipur, Feb 26 (PTI) Spooked by the mysterious Zika virus that has cast a shadow on the Olympic Games in Brazil, Indias race walkers will avoid reaching Rio de Janeiro in advance for the mega-event in August. Race walk coach Alexander Artsybashev today said his wards, who make the cut for the Olympics will have an 80-day training stint from June onwards in Poland and from there, they will fly to Rio just before the start of the events. Alexander, who has been coaching the Indian race walk team since 2011, was speaking to journalists ahead of the two -day National Race Walk Championships which begins here tomorrow. “After this, we have the Asian Race Walk Championships (March 20) in Nomi, Japan and then the IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships (May 7-8) in Italy. After that we will have an 80-day training stint at Spala in Poland as the Indian summer is not suitable for preparation of race walkers for the Olympics,” he said. “From Spala, we will go straight to Rio for the Olympics. But since there is the Zika problem (in Brazil) we are not going to Rio in advance. We will reach there just before the race walk events start,” said the Russian. Organisers of the 2016 Olympics are facing an uphill task in their bid to convince the international sports community that the Games will be spared the effects of the mysterious Zika virus. Concerns over Zika, carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and thought to cause defects in newborns, have dominated recent discussion about the Olympics, which begin in Rio on August 5. PTI PDS PM PMadvertisement
While Trinamool Congress head honcho Mamata Banerjee is all set to take over the chief ministerial berth, preparations are on full swing to invite some of the top political leaders, industrialists and stars from the film fraternity to attend the swearing-in ceremony Kolkata.Since close to 8,000 to 10,000 guests are expected to arrive on the big day, the event will take place in Red Road instead of the usual Raj Bhavan.PM MODI, SONIA TOPS THE LISTTopping the list is Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Congress President Sonia Gandhi.Others include Bihar CM Nitish Kumar, Uttar Pradesh CM Akhilesh Yadav, Delhi CM Arvind Kejriwal, Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis and Tamil Nadu’s soon-to-be CM Jayalalithaa.Former Bihar CM and RJD chief Lalu Prasad and son Tejaswi Yadav are also included on the guest list. Sources told India Today that the TMC chief has personally invited Nitish, Sonia and Lalu.Union Minister Arun Jaitley, Venkaiah Naidu and Nitin Gadkari will also be invited.Speaking to India Today, Mamata’s brother, Kartik Banerjee said that she was keen on inviting several CMs for her oath ceremony.”PM Modi will be invited for the swearing-in. Nitish Kumar, Arvind Kejriwal and several others who are considered to be her friends will also be called,” he said.”It would be great gesture to invite PM Modi for the swearing-in on May 27″, State BJP President Dileep Ghosh said.INDUSTRIALISTS ON THE LISTMukesh Ambani, YC Deveshwar are some of the top industrialists who are likely to attend the ceremony.advertisementFILM/SPORTS FRATERNITY ALSO INVITEDInvitations are being sent to actor Amitabh Bachchan, Shah Rukh Khan for their participation. Former Indian cricket captain Sourav Ganguly is also being invited.LEFT ‘LEFT’ OUTSources say that leaders from the Left parties are likely to be excluded from the event.MAMATA EYES 2019 POLLSGoing by the list of political leaders, some say that Mamata is trying to send a signal to Delhi about her keen interest for the 2019 polls. Addressing her first meet with the newly elected legislators, the TMC chief said that her visits to the National Capital is likely to increase, possibly once in two months.However, BJP was quick to downplay Mamata’s national ambitions.”Delhi is far away. Mamata should focus on developing Bengal,” Dileep Ghosh said.Also read:Daggers drawn within CPM after Mamata Banerjee sweeps Bengal Jaya and Mamata surprise everyone with their second successive victories, all set for big battle 2019
Prime Minister Andrew Holness has reassured the Canadian Diaspora that the country’s debt to GDP ratio will fall below one hundred per cent by the end of the financial year.“This is not a political achievement, it is a national achievement. But it is forcing us now to pay for our development with our own taxes and by growing our economy”, explained the Prime Minister.Prime Minister Holness was addressing Jamaicans in the Diaspora yesterday (June 7) at the OPM Live Canada Town Hall meeting at the Praise Cathedral Worship Centre in Mississauga, Ontario.“We have gone on a diet. We are not borrowing what we don’t have and can’t pay back”, indicated Prime Minister Holness.He further explained that some of the borrowing can be attributed to bad policies informed by purely bad politics.“In 2009 we had no choice but to confront the issues that we had and by then our debt to GDP, meaning what we owed the rest of the world relative to what we produce in a year, for every dollar of production we owed one hundred and forty dollars. So our debt to GDP ratio was $140 to $1. We had no choice but to go the IMF for assistance. It forced us to adapt and adopt a more practical approach to the management of our affairs. If we are going to develop we will have to pay for our development by growing our economy and being responsible with our finances. We could not continue to say it was somebody else’s fault. We couldn’t blame it on the international world order because many of the problems were as a result of our local homegrown decisions”, noted the Prime Minister.In the meantime, he added that the Government is also moving to create a digital economy. A part of this initiative is the National Identification System which is designed to secure the unique identity of every Jamaican.
Ray Rice, banned from the NFL last week after TMZ released the video of him punching unconscious his fiancee in February, will fight the indefinite suspension through the NFL Players Association.The league originally levied a two-game suspension on Rice. A few weeks ago, the NFL instituted a domestic violence policy that called for a six-game suspension for first-time offenders and a permanent ban for second-time violators.But after the release of the footage a few days later, the Baltimore Ravens released their star running back, which it has the right to do, and the NFL changed his suspension from two games to indefinite, which is a point of contention for Rice.At issue will be how the NFL went from two games to indefinite, even skipping over the six-game ban it instituted after it had reprimanded Rice, a first-time offender.Rice must file the appeal by 11:59 p.m. Tuesday — three business days after the NFL officially notified the players’ union of the suspension.The NFLPA still has not finalized its plan on a basis for the appeal and is considering multiple options, according to ESPN.The two-game ban drew widespread criticism of the NFL’s policy on domestic violence, prompting the tougher penalties. Commissioner Roger Goodell admitted that he “didn’t get it right” in a letter to team owners with the initial minor punishment of Rice.But public outrage intensified this past week in the aftermath of the circulation of the video, which clearly showed Rice punching Janay Palmer, who is now his wife, in the face. She hit her head on a railing inside the elevator and was knocked unconscious.The NFL and the Ravens both have repeatedly said that they saw the video footage from inside the elevator for the first time when it was released by TMZ last week.But an anonymous law enforcement officer told The Associated Press that he personally sent a tape of Rice striking Palmer to an NFL executive in April, sparking further scrutiny of Goodell and the league. A team headed by a former FBI chief is investigating.
Credit: FALKENSTEINFOTO/Alamy Stock Photo In a series of tantalising clues, he revealed that hidden in the manuscript and descriptions of the 14 variations were a “dark saying” and “larger theme”. Mark Pitt claims Prudentia hold the key to the “larger theme” hidden in the 14 variations When Sir Edward Elgar wrote the Enigma Variations 120 years ago he set one of the most enduring and baffling puzzles that has confounded mathematical and musical minds alike. In the 1899 program for the Enigma… Now, a police inspector with an MA in crime patterns claims he has cracked the code after years’ of research. Mark Pitt, 45, has analysed the initials of names and nicknames of those Elgar dedicated his “themes” to, as well as the composer’s obsession with John Holt Schooling, a cryptographer whose apparently unsolvable cipher he cracked.
Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)RelatedTenant suspected of dealing drugs opens fire on landlord when confrontedNovember 12, 2016In “Crime”Miner ‘cold-bloodedly murdered’ for refusing to perform oral sex- PoliceJune 16, 2017In “Crime”Update: Money Changer shot dead on High StreetApril 16, 2019In “Crime” According to the police, investigations revealed that the suspect who is a frequent visitor of the victim, went to the victim’s home, located at the upper flat of the house, shortly after 1pm on Friday and minutes later, the victim was heard screaming. The police who were alerted, responded promptly and reportedly caught the suspect in the process of exiting the yard. Police say the suspect has since confessed to beating the the 88- year-old man because of his (victim) refusal to give him some money. The body is presently at the hospital’s mortuary awaiting a post-mortem examination. Police say they have detained a 30 year-old-man who is said to have no fixed place of abode, in connection with the death of pensioner Fitzherbert Grimes, 88, of Hazel Street, Springlands, Corriverton, Berbice.Grimes died on Firday, several hours after being admitted a patient at the Skeldon Public Hospital.He was taken to the hospital around 13:30hrs by officers, with a lacerated wound to his mouth and swollen eyes.
THE MINISTER FOR TRANSPORT Leo Varadkar has announced that €40 million will be reallocated within local authorities in order to help fix Ireland’s roads.Speaking on Morning Ireland, he said that this wasn’t new money, however. “That’s just the same money that they can reallocate,” he said.While the minister believed that Ireland’s motorways and national primary roads were “generally in good condition”, he believed that there was a “real and growing problem with local roads” and that this had been made known to his department on numerous occasions.‘Haven’t enough money’Admitting that his department hadn’t the money to repair Ireland’s roads to the “standard that we’d like”, he instead called on local authorities to focus on maintenance, and announced that a further €2.7 million would be allocated to drainage works in order to prevent further deterioration.The transport minister said that he was calling on local authorities to put more of their discretionary expenditure into the roads, but said that he didn’t have the authority to instruct them to do this.“I could name and shame,” he said. I haven’t quite done that yet.”He said that local authorities would need to use a greater percentage of their motor tax take to make this happen, urging them to take “their responsibilities a bit more seriously and priorities road allocations.”TheJournal.ie have run a number of pieces recently about the state of Ireland’s roads. A selection of images that users sent in can be seen below.
Unlike the Galaxy Note, there’s no confusion as to whether the new Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.7 might be a very large smartphone. It is, of course, the smallest member of Samsung’s updated Galaxy Tab range — joining the Galaxy Tab 8.9 and Galaxy Tab 10.1 — and it’s been officially unveiled at IFA 2011 in Berlin.Like the Galaxy Note, the Galaxy Tab 7.7 sports a 1.4GHz dual-core processor. It also offers 1GB of RAM, 802.11 a/b/g/n Wi-Fi (including Wi-Fi N Channel Bonding), Bluetooth 3.0 and WiFi Direct, 3MP rear camera with LED flash and 2MP front camera, a microSD expansion slot, and a 5100 mAh battery. Android Honeycomb 3.2 is onboard, as is Samsung’s latest TouchWiz UX. The tablet is just .3 of an inch thick and weighs about 12 ounces.As is the norm with most Android tablets that come to market, there will be different versions of the Galaxy Tab 7.7 available with internal storage ranging from 16 to 64GB. As does the Galaxy Note, the 7.7 also offers EDGE/GPRS and HSPA+ connectivity and there is a receiver mode available in case you decide you actually do want to use the slate like an 8-inch phone without broadcasting your conversation like it’s on speakerphone.But it’s the Galaxy Tab 7.7’s screen that Samsung seems most excited about. It’s the first tablet to feature a Super AMOLED Plus display, which pushes 1280×800 pixels. It’s a feature addition we learned was coming to the Galaxy line-up way back in November of 2010, and Samsung still says it beats the iPhone 4’s retina display.More at Samsung
Support it or not, there’s no denying that this was a watershed year for marijuana.Within hours of the new year, the nation saw the first legally sanctioned sales of marijuana for recreational use in modern history. Throughout, states considered and often passed expanding access to the drug and, as recently as last weekend, Congress was interfering in D.C.’s pot policies and promising to stay out of the states.Based on exchanges with pot advocates, we rounded up 22 of the most significant moments for marijuana in 2014, most of them advancing the cause though the list includes a few notable setbacks.Legal sales begin in Colorado (Jan. 1)The year began with an historic moment: the first legally sanctioned sale of recreational marijuana in modern history. Buyers lined up at dispensaries throughout the state to take part in the historic moment, despite the occasional snow flurry. Swarmed by cameras and journalists at a planned media event, former Marine Sean Azzariti was among the first to make a purchase. He bought 3.5 grams of “Bubba Kush” for $40 and some pot-laced chocolate truffles for an additional $9.28.Barack Obama: ‘I don’t think it is more dangerous than alcohol’ (Jan. 27)In the Jan. 27 issue of the New Yorker, Editor David Remnick published a long piece based on a wide-ranging interview with President Barack Obama. In it, the president shared his thoughts on marijuana, which advocates felt gave legitimacy to their long-held argument that marijuana does relatively little harm.Here’s Remnick:“When I asked Obama about another area of shifting public opinion – the legalization of marijuana – he seemed even less eager to evolve with any dispatch and get in front of the issue. “As has been well documented, I smoked pot as a kid, and I view it as a bad habit and a vice, not very different from the cigarettes that I smoked as a young person up through a big chunk of my adult life. I don’t think it is more dangerous than alcohol.”
ADC AUTHOR Twelve Republican senators broke with President Trump Thursday to disapprove of the national emergency declaration that would let him divert unobligated but appropriated military construction funding and other money to build a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border.The House-passed resolution cleared the Senate 59-41.Sen. Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.) said he supports Trump on border security but not defying the founders’ ideals that Congress controls spending.“[H]is declaration to take an additional $3.6 billion that Congress has appropriated for military hospitals, barracks and schools is inconsistent with the U.S. Constitution that I swore an oath to support and defend,” Alexander said in a statement.Besides Alexander, the Republicans voting for the disapproval resolution were Sens. Roy Blunt (R-Mo.), Susan Collins (Maine), Mike Lee (Utah), Jerry Moran (Kan.), Lisa Murkowski (Alaska), Rand Paul (Ky.), Rob Portman (Ohio), Mitt Romney (Utah), Marco Rubio (Fla.), Pat Toomey (Penn.) and Roger Wicker (Miss.).There doesn’t seem to be enough votes in either chamber to override a veto, which President Trump promised again in a one-word tweet Thursday after the vote.Courts have yet to take action on a host of lawsuits filed against the declaration.Senator Roger Wicker at Keesler Air Force Base, Miss., in 2017. U.S. Air Force photo by Kemberly Groue
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Upsilon Tau Omega Chapter will host “A Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul Workshop” free to the public, Oct. 25 from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., at the Oxon Hill Library, 6200 Oxon Hill Road. Professionals in various areas of expertise will provide information to encourage healthy living and how to keep ourselves healthy, mentality, physically, and emotionally. Vendors also will be at the workshop to share information about new products for skin, hair, nails, and feet. To register for the event, please go to www.akaupsilontauomega.org. Seating is on a first-come, first-served basis so attendees are strongly encouraged to register.
Cats have been considered a symbol of good fortune in Japanese culture since ancient times. In recent decades the Maneki-Neko, a traditional Japanese figurine of a sitting cat who is waving one or both of its paws, has become a popular decoration all over the world. Maneki-Neko’s alleged fortune-bringing properties likely arose from an ancient belief that a shop owner will have a lot of customers and earn good money on a day when a cat raises its paws and cleans its face in front of their store. This belief might be nothing more than a deeply-rooted folklore superstition, but, in some instances, cats have actually brought good luck to people.Tama, the stationmaster of Kishi Station, Wakayama Electric Railway, located in Kinokawa, Wakayama, Japan. Photo by Takobou CC BY 2.5Such was the case with Tama, a stray calico cat who ended up employed as the stationmaster and operating officer at the Kishi railroad station in Kinokawa, a city in the Japanese Wakayama prefecture. Tama was born in April of 1999 and spent the first seven years of her life wandering around at the station along with a number of other strays.During that time, an informal station manager named Toshiko Koyama regularly provided the cats with food and shelter. In 2006, at a time when the future of the station, owned by a company called Wakayama Electric Railroad, was uncertain due to a severe financial crisis, Koyama adopted Tama and introduced her to the other members of the staff.Kishi Station on the Wakayama Electric Railway Kishi Line.A year later, Koyama was officially elected as the stationmaster, and he immediately decided to pass this title onto Tama, who had already gained significant popularity for roaming around the station’s offices and cuddling with passengers.A station master’s hat and badge were made for the cat, and her primary job was to greet passengers. As you might have guessed, the feline station manager wasn’t paid in regular human money, but rather in large quantities of quality cat food.Tama at her office. Photo by Anthonation CC BY-SA 3.0Employing a cat soon proved to be a rather beneficial decision for Wakayama Electric Railroad: the fluffy, good-natured Tama attracted many new passengers and visitors, and the publicity she received caused the station to become famous across the country.Cat Pretends To Fall Hard To The Ground After Being Hit By A Toy CarAfter a study, conducted in 2008, showed that the cat’s presence resulted in a $4.7 million increase in the station’s profit in just over a year, the company decided to promote Tama to the position of “super stationmaster” and employ two more cats, Chibi, Tama’s sister, and Miiko, Tama’s mother, as Tama’s assistant stationmasters.Tama – Stationmaster’s room and one gate of Kishi Station in Kinokawa, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Photo by Twilight2640 CC BY-SA 3.0Also, the company introduced a number of Tama-themed attractions, such as the “Tama Densha” — a train decorated with cartoonish depictions of the famous cat, and Tama’s office — a “super stationmaster’s room,” a ticket office kitted out with a litter tray and scratching post. In 2010, the whole station was actually rebuilt to resemble a face of a giant cat.Tama remained employed as the super stationmaster until her death on June 22, 2015, at the age of 16. Thousands of her fans attended her Shinto-style funeral ceremony in Kinokawa. A few months after the funeral, she was enshrined at a newly built Shinto cat shrine and proclaimed the “Honorary Eternal Stationmaster.”Nitama, the stationmaster of Idakiso Station (left) and Tama, the stationmaster of Kishi Station (right), Wakayama Electric Railway, Wakayama, Japan. Photo by Takobou CC BY-SA 3.0In Japan, the traditional mourning period for the loss of a loved one lasts for 50 days. Therefore, the position of stationmaster at the Kishi station was vacant for 50 days following Tama’s passing. The next feline stationmaster, Nitama (the “Second Tama”) started working in fall of 2015; she was born in the city of Okayama and was rescued from underneath a train car by employees of the Okayama Electric Tramway.Read another story from us: Simon, the cat crusader who served aboard HMS Amethyst, received three medals after being woundedTo this day, Nitama continues greeting many people that pass through the Kishi station on a daily basis; her helpers, two younger calico cats, make her job a little easier by handling some of the cuddling and meowing.Domagoj Valjak is freelance writer with a master’s degree in English and comparative literature. He has contributed to Taste of Cinema and The Vintage News.
Queen Anne Boleyn is a figure that still haunts British and world culture. She has been extensively portrayed through theater, television, film, fiction, and numerous biographies. She has become one of the most enigmatic historical figures and it seems that historians and history-keen folks can’t get enough of her.Believed to be one of the most traveled ghosts in history, there are numerous accounts reporting the sighting of her spirit.Sadly, she is not seen in all her beauty and glory, but the way she looked after Henry VIII beheaded her for not being able to give him the heir he wanted.Anne Boleyn, Henry’s second queenBesides haunting our imaginations and interest, her ghost is said to haunt many places in the United Kingdom.Blickling HallBlickling Hall, Aylsham, Norfolk, England. Photo by DeFacto CC BY-SA 4.0Blickling Hall in Norfolk was a birthplace of Anne Boleyn. It is believed that in 1536, when the news of Anne’s death reached Blickling Hall, four headless horses were sighted dragging a beheaded body across the town.The Living Room. Photo by Martin Pettitt CC BY 2.0Nowadays, Anne’s ghost reportedly appears on May 19th every year, riding in a carriage driven by a headless horseman and carrying her own head in her lap. The carriage is said to noiselessly approach Blickling Hall along the driveway — then disappears upon reaching the house.Tower of LondonTower of LondonThe Tower of London was a place of Anne Boleyn’s tragic death. It is now a location where her ghost is reputed to frequently appear as a reminder of the gruesome act. She has been seen in the White Tower, Chapel of St. Peter and Vincula where she was first buried in an arrow case, in the Green Tower, and the Queen’s House.The peaceful looking Tower of LondonThere are many accounts of her appearance and the most famous one dates back to 1864 when General Dundas claimed to have seen her hovering over the ground, dressed in white. He charged at her with a bayonet but the weapon went straight through her, which is when he realized it was a ghost of the deceased queen.Hever CastleHever Castle, Kent, England.Hever Castle is the place to watch for Anne’s ghost around Christmas time. She grew up in the castle and Christmas was her favorite holiday, so she symbolically visits her childhood home every year at the same time. She might be spotted either under the oak tree where she and Henry VIII spent happy pre-marital time together, or walking across the Eden Lake bridge.Windsor CastleWindsor Castle – Changing of the Guards.Windsor Castle is world’s oldest occupied castle and home to the Queen. This apparently does not deter the spirit of Anne Boleyn from wandering through the hallways on occasion.There are a couple of photographs in which the she can allegedly be spotted. In one of the eeriest stories, a witness claims to have seen the ghost frantically running down the hall with her screaming head under her arm.Lambeth PalaceLambeth Palace. Photo by JaT CC BY-SA 3.0It is believed that Anne’s trial took place in Lambeth Palace before she was convicted and taken on a barge back to the Tower of London for execution.Read another story from us: The Creepiest ‘Ghost’ Picture People are Still Arguing AboutThere are many sad stories about the queen who pleads for her life and mercy. If you believe the tales, she can still be heard moaning and crying and her cries echo through the dark undercroft.
After the back-to-back release of Tensorflow 1.9 release candidates, rc-0, rc-1, and rc-2, the final version TensorFlow 1.9 is out and generally available. Key highlights of this version include support for gradient boosted trees estimators, new keras layers to speed up GRU and LSTM implementations and tfe.Network deprecation. It also includes improved functions for supporting data loading, text processing and pre-made estimators. Tensorflow 1.9 major features and improvements As mentioned in Tensorflow 1.9 rc-2, new Keras-based get started page and programmers guide page in the tf.Keras have been updated. The tf.Keras has been updated to Keras 2.1.6 API. One should try the newly added tf.keras.layers.CuDNNGRU, used for a faster GRU implementation and tf.keras.layers.CuDNNLSTM layers, which allows faster LSTM implementation. Both these layers are backed by cuDNN( NVIDIA CUDA Deep Neural Network library (cuDNN)). Gradient boosted trees estimators, a non-parametric statistical learning technique for classification and regression, are now supported by core feature columns and losses. Also, the python interface for the TFLite Optimizing Converter has been expanded, and the command line interface (AKA: toco, tflite_convert) is once again included in the standard pip installation. The distributions.Bijector API in the TF version 1.9 also supports broadcasting for Bijectors with the new API changes. Tensorflow 1.9 also includes improved data-loading and text processing with tf.decode_compressed, tf.string_strip, and Tf.strings.regex_full_match. It also has an added experimental support for new pre-made estimators like tf.contrib.estimator.BaselineEstimator, tf.contrib.estimator.RNNClassifier, tf.contrib.estimator.RNNEstimator. This version includes two breaking changes. Firstly for opening up empty variable scopes one can replace variable_scope(”, …) by variable_scope(tf.get_variable_scope(), …), which is used to get the current scope of the variable. And the second breakthrough change is, headers used for building custom ops have been moved to a different file path. From site-packages/external to site-packages/tensorflow/include/external. Some bug fixes and other changes include: The tfe.Network has been deprecated Layered variable names have changed in the following conditions: Using tf.keras.layers with custom variable scopes. Using tf.layers in a subclassed tf.keras.Model class. Added the ability to pause recording operations for gradient computation via tf.GradientTape.stop_recording in the Eager execution and updated its documentation and introductory notebooks. Fixed an issue in which the TensorBoard Debugger Plugin, which could not handle total source file size exceeding gRPC message size limit (4 MB). Added GCS Configuration Ops and complex128 support to FFT, FFT2D, FFT3D, IFFT, IFFT2D, and IFFT3D. Conv3D, Conv3DBackpropInput, Conv3DBackpropFilter now supports arbitrary. Prevents tf.gradients() from backpropagating through integer tensors. LinearOperator[1D,2D,3D]Circulant added to tensorflow.linalg. To know more about the other changes, visit TensorFlow 1.9 release notes on GitHub. Read Next Create a TensorFlow LSTM that writes stories [Tutorial] Build and train an RNN chatbot using TensorFlow [Tutorial] Use TensorFlow and NLP to detect duplicate Quora questions [Tutorial]
Guyana Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado National Geographic’s Top 20 list aims to feature the most authentic, culturally rich, sustainable and superlative travel destinations across the world today. Cordoba, Argentina The Territory’s people are “what make the place come alive”, according to National Geographic. Cathar country, France Australia’s Northern Territory has garnered an enviable spot alongside destinations such as Cape Verde and Liechtenstein in National Geographic’s Best of the World 2014. John Muir Trail, Scotland Arbil, Iraq Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bolaven Plateau, Laos Cape Verde Puglia, Italy Source = ETB News: P.T. Alentejo, Portugal Cacao Trail, Ecuador Liechtenstein Ranthambore National Park, India “It means now the whole world knows the Territory is the place to visit if you want an unforgettable holiday like no other,” Minister Conlan said. Northern Territory, Australia Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda Best of the World 2014 (alphabetical order): The NT’s listing is fantastic news for the Australian state, according to Tourism Minister Matt Conlan. Sochi, Russia Nahanni National Park, Canada Riga, Latvia New Orleans, Louisiana The Derawan Islands, Indonesia were voted ‘Readers’ Choice’ winner 2014.
Small Lenders Leverage Program to Compete with Larger Firms Agents & Brokers Attorneys & Title Companies Company News Investors Lenders & Servicers Processing Service Providers 2013-01-22 Krista Franks Brock January 22, 2013 448 Views in Data, Government, Origination, Secondary Market, Servicing “”The Mortgage Partnership Finance (MPF) Program,””:http://www.fhlbmpf.com/ originated in 1997 to assist small financial institutions in selling fixed-rate conforming loans to the secondary market, has experienced rapid growth over the last year. [IMAGE]Both the number of financial institutions participating in the program and the number of loans funded through the program grew in 2012, according to a release from MPF. [COLUMN_BREAK]The roster of lenders relying on the MPF Program grew 15 percent in 2012.In loan volume, the program financed $14.33 billion in 2012, up from $6.99 billion in 2011. “”The MPF Program lets community lenders offer their customers home loans at a competitive price, which means borrowers can continue to work with their local lending institutions they know and trust,”” said Eric Schambow, SVP and director of MPF, “”and Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) Members can take advantage of their existing relationship with their FHLP.”” The program allows smaller, community banks to compete with larger lending institutions in the mortgage market. Participating lenders also benefit from additional training and support, including access to Fannie Mae’s Desktop Underwriter to help with credit risk assessment. MPF also offers MPF Xtra, which sells loans directly to Fannie Mae. Use of this product more than doubled last year. In 2012, the product served more than $6.94 billion in loans, up from $2.81 billion in 2011. Share
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Even when the researchers controlled for established cardiovascular disease risk factors, or to return to policies that give Crimea even greater autonomy from Kievopening the door to join Russia down the line, D." Krasnov said John told him that him that the day he received the call was “the most wonderful and lovely in [his] life. or Mandela, READ MORE: Can McDonalds get its mojo back?” This year’s celebration will also focus on the Education 2030 initiative, and these value-added services now make up 47% of Etsy’s total revenue. mostly plants, ” commended AI for standing bold to condemn the crime against humanity as committed by the government of Nigeria and her security agencies.
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