Few vets see pet chickens”During the manuscript’s review process, we did find a fewveteran veterinarians that knew the standard anesthesia processdidn’t work on chickens,” Wyatt said. “The chemicals that werebeing used work just fine on rats, cats, dogs and birds likepigeons and parrots. You just don’t find many veterinarians outthere performing surgery on pet chickens.”In the summer of 2002, Clifton and Varner reapplied to the YSPand were reassigned to Wyatt. That summer their research wasapplied in Wyatt’s laboratory. Isoflurane was used to performminor research surgeries on chickens.Isoflurane is expensive to use because you need an anesthesiamachine. But it’s more humane for the chickens and better forresearch. “The UGA avian genetics group is doing remarkableresearch using this method,” he said.YSP can be an invaluable learning experience for high schoolstudents, he said. It often helps them decide what they want tostudy in college.”The Young Scholars Program gives students an opportunity thattakes them from start to finish with a tangible product at theend,” he said.Varner is now a sophomore majoring in math education at UGA.Clifton is a sophomore majoring in health policy andadministration at the University of North Carolina.(Chowning Johnson is a student writer and Sharon Omahen a newseditor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural andEnvironmental Sciences.) The toe-pinch test revealed the problem”We uncovered this in the same way a doctor would with a humanpatient,” Wyatt said. “We put the chicken under, did a toe-pinchtest and saw a reaction.”They tested Ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam, injectableanesthetics, and Isoflurane gas, an inhalant anesthetic. All areused in surgery for mammals.They checked the chickens’ heart rates, respiration, bodytemperatures, blood glucose and response to moderate toe-pinchesat timed increments before, during and after the anesthesia use.The ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam didn’t achieve asurgical plane of anesthesia for the chickens. Ketamine withxylazine could even kill the chickens.Isoflurane produced a safe surgical plane of anesthesia for thechickens.Wyatt, Poulos and J. Roger Broderson, a former UGA director ofanimal care and use, helped Clifton and Varner prepare themanuscript that was published in “Lab Animal.” By Chowning Johnson &Sharon OmahenUniversity of GeorgiaIf you go to a hospital to have surgery, you want the anesthesiato work. Two Georgia high school students in a University ofGeorgia internship program have made sure it works for chickens,too.Jack Varner and Kelli Clifton participated in the UGA YoungScholars Program in 2001 and 2002. Their research on theeffectiveness of three anesthetic regimes on chickens waspublished in the peer-reviewed journal, “Lab Animal,” in May2004.The Young Scholars Program was started in 1999. The six-weeksummer program, matches high school students with scientists inthe UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Introducing students to common ag surgeriesRoger Wyatt, a UGA professor emeritus of poultry science, helpedVarner and Clifton design their experiment. He wanted to acquaintthem with simple small-animal surgeries.Chickens are commonly used in scientific research laboratories,Wyatt said.”We use chickens in our research at UGA because there are severalsimple surgical procedures students can perform easily on them,”he said. “You can teach a student to castrate a chicken, acommon agricultural procedure, and do so in a laboratory. It’sanalogous to doing the same thing to a steer.”Both students showed interest in pursuing careers in veterinaryor human medicine. “So this project was a perfect fit,” he said.Until this experiment, not much was known about regimes thatproduce a surgical level of anesthesia for chickens and not hurtthem.With the help of UGA veterinary student Stacy Poulos, they foundthat chemicals commonly used in animal anesthesia didn’t putchickens in a state in which they couldn’t feel pain.
continue reading » ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr Maps Credit Union Chief Risk Officer Rachel Pross penned an op-ed for The Hill Wednesday on the challenges credit unions face around cannabis banking. Pross’ op-ed closely followed her testimony on behalf of the CUNA/League system before the Senate Banking Committee earlier this week in support of HR 1595, the SAFE Banking Act.CUNA takes no position on the legalization of cannabis, but it supports credit unions’ ability to serve their members. In states where cannabis is legal for medicinal and recreational purposes, credit union members are engaged in this market but have difficulty accessing traditional banking services. The public safety risk continues to grow among credit unions and communities at large due to the lack of access to banking services.“Millions in cash is being stored in back rooms and storehouses around the country, creating a massive target for thieves. A study out of the Wharton Business School found that a typical dispensary burglar can steal up to $50,000. To put that into perspective, the average bank robber nets $7,500,” Pross wrote. “With more states legalizing cannabis in one form or another, and with the industry slated to triple by 2023, this is a rapidly growing public safety issue. But that’s not to say it can’t be fixed.”
Kyle Rittenburg, farm manager, says the youth workers are getting experience with customer service. The stand opened in June and will run through the end of October. BINGHAMTON (WBNG) — Volunteers Improving Neighborhood Environments started a farm stand on the corner of Tudor and Susquehanna in Downtown Binghamton. The stand is open every Thursday from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. At the stand, customers can purchase peppers, tomatoes and other types of produce. “Also this year is a little different,” Rittenburg said. “So it’s a lot of sanitation and food safety for harvest and for selling.” VINES is selling items grown at the Urban Farm just down the street.
“I don’t think that [West Java] needs to apply one specific strategy for all regions […]. What’s important is to make sure that we’re having more recoveries,” he added.As of Thursday, Bekasi recorded a total of 3,322 confirmed cases.With a total of 22,764 cases, West Java accounted for 7.8 percent of all of Indonesia’s confirmed cases of 291,182 on Thursday. Meanwhile, the province has recorded 13,778 recoveries and 435 deaths.Ridwan reportedly opened the office in Depok on central government orders to optimize efforts to curb the spread of COVID-19 in Jakarta’s surrounding areas in West Java. “Nearly 70 percent of the COVID-19 cases in West Java are contributed by Bodebek [Bogor, Depok, Bekasi], so the central government directed me to focus on handling those areas,” the governor said on Wednesday, as quoted by tempo.co.Read also: COVID-19 cases in prioritized provinces decrease, but still high: Task forceRidwan, who spends most of his time in the province’s capital of Bandung, said having an office in Depok could also help him carry out tasks in the “red zones”, including monitoring the regional elections at the end of the year. “Once or twice a week, depending on the situation, I would be in Bodebek areas, especially in Depok,” he said, adding that his plan would last for several months. He expressed hope that he could set an example for COVID-19 task forces in Bodebek to work harder to curb case numbers and said the West Java Police and the Military Command (Kodam) III/Siliwangi in Bandung supported this “tactical” policy. “Where there is a red zone, where there are high numbers of violations, the police chief and the military commander will send their teams as back-up,” he said. Recently, he said, the West Java Police had tasked its leading officers in Cirebon with controlling virus transmission as the city became a red zone. Moreover, the West Java deputy police chief had opened an office in Bogor to directly help the city mitigate the outbreak, he added. (syk)Topics : He went on to say that it was understandable for the governor to open the office in Depok, as the city was deemed to be showing slow progress in containing the virus. Depok has recorded the highest number of cases in the province with 4,386 as of Friday.Read also: Ridwan Kamil opens office in Depok to monitor COVID-19, regional electionsRahmat further said that each region had a different way of pushing down the number of cases, adding that he continued to communicate with the governor on handling COVID-19. The mayor of Bekasi in West Java, Rahmat Effendi, has asked the provinces governor, Ridwan Kamil, to visit other regions in the province as the latter opened an office in Depok on Friday to monitor the handling of COVID-19 and regional elections.“It would best for the governor to also visit other regions of the province, like Bekasi and Bogor, to see how they handle COVID-19 specifically. “Each region has its own approach, and I think it would be meaningful for the governor to see how seriously we’re doing this,” Rahmat said on Thursday as quoted by kompas.com.
The Law Commission, the statutory independent body that monitors the law in England and Wales to ensure it is fair, modern and cost-effective, is to review the powers of English and Welsh charities in relation to mixed-purpose social investment.Mixed-purpose social investment is a relatively recent phenomenon.The investment is made in part to achieve a financial return and in part to achieve a social benefit that furthers its objectives.The Law Commission said social investment in general presented many challenges for charity trustees, with decision-making complicated by the relative novelty of the concept, and the immaturity of the social investment market. But while Charity Commission guidance explains that charity trustees can make mixed-purpose investments, there is concern the current legal framework does not easily accommodate this.This can deter trustees from taking advantage of social investment opportunities and result in high transaction costs.The Law Commission has therefore agreed with the Cabinet Office that it will consider whether the law can be reformed to make clearer the powers and duties of charity trustees in undertaking mixed-purpose investment.In particular, the review will examine whether a new specific power to make mixed-purpose investments is feasible and would be beneficial for charities.It will also consider the introduction of a new legal power for non-functional permanent endowments to be invested in mixed-purpose investments, with the requirement that capital levels must be maintained or otherwise restored within a reasonable period.According to the Charity Commission, there are 50,000 charitable trusts in England and Wales.Assets of charitable trusts with annual income of more than £500,000 (€590,000) total £48.5bn, according to the Association of Charitable Foundations (ACF).Carol Mack, deputy chief executive at the ACF, said: “This has been a longstanding subject of discussion, and it’s helpful to have it looked at.”Raj Singh, programme director at the UK Sustainable Investment and Finance Association (UKSIF), said: “Charities shouldn’t be constrained by red tape when it comes to mixed-purpose social investment. Such investments provide additional leverage to charities by providing additive benefit, on top of core operations, to the people they serve.”He added: “One way of doing that is through impact investing vehicles, though charities will need to be careful to pick a portfolio that ultimately suits beneficiaries.“The growing impact-investing market means this type of investment can be utilised by more and more charities as mixed-purpose social investments.”Singh said it appeared that regulators were beginning to understand that these investments could achieve competitive returns, as outlined in a recent report by Sonen Capital and the KL Felicitas Foundation in the US.He said: “The news that a foundation has invested 85% of its assets into a range of bespoke impact-investment portfolios over seven years, achieving index-competitive levels of return, seems to blow the fears of underperformance out of the water, while still retaining the benefits of diversification.“Clarifying charity law to allow for taking on higher risks would be welcomed, but it should be stressed that mixed-purpose social investing can be return-based.“The range of products in the mixed-purpose social investment market is maturing rapidly, and this type of investment can mirror ‘mainstream’ risk-adjusted investing.”The review represents an extension of the Law Commission’s charity law project, started in March, which will examine selected issues in charity law, including Charity Commission powers, charity transactions and disposals (for instance, of land) and charity mergers.It follows last year’s review of the Charities Act 2006 by Lord Hodgson of Astley Abbotts.The Law Commission expects to launch a public consultation in summer 2014, with the publication of a final report and draft Bill in March 2016, if the review progresses far enough.
Image: U.S. Department of AgricultureINDIANAPOLIS – Time is running out for some Indiana farmers who want to continue receiving federal assistance to improve soil, water, air and habitat quality on their land.Since the Conservation Stewardship Program was launched five years ago, more than 60 million farm acres nationwide have been enrolled in the program through the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Sophia Kruszewski a policy specialist for the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition, said the CSP is unique in that it isn’t about helping farmers avoid environmental harm, but rather about enhancing and improving what conservation-minded farmers already are doing.“So maybe they started doing a little cover cropping but they really want to get more into a full suite of resource-conserving crop rotations,” she said. “Maybe they’ve done some improvements in the way that they’re managing their livestock, but they want to start looking at rotational grazing.”The CSP, which was created in the 2008 Farm Bill, has been reauthorized and strengthened with the latest version. The roughly 20,000 farmers with five-year contracts up for renewal must do so by Sept. 12 through the nearest NRCS office.Kruszewski called the program a win-win for the environment and for farmers, and said the CSP represents a new, forward-thinking vision of American agriculture.“We’re really seeing a strong focus on the need to support farmers not only to have productive, viable farms and ranches but also to be able to work those farms with an eye toward natural-resource conservation.”Kruszewski said new farmers interested in the program can submit an application to enroll at any time, with NRCS collecting and ranking the applications once per year, typically in February.More information on CSP is online at nrcs.usda.gov.Mona Shand
Bryan Robson has paid Chris Smalling a huge compliment by likening his recent performances to those of Paul McGrath and Gary Pallister. Press Association Five years after signing for United, Smalling is yet to convince many United fans he and Phil Jones are suitable long-term replacements for Nemanja Vidic and Rio Ferdinand, who left Old Trafford last summer after long and distinguished careers. The 25-year-old has been the object of a few taunts, most recently in the Manchester derby last November when he was sent off in the 39th minute. Smalling, already on a booking, showed a complete lack of composure by hacking down James Milner in the corner to earn his second yellow and United went on to lose 1-0 against a City team that was there for the taking. Smalling has since shown signs of improvement, though. His commanding performance in last week’s 3-0 victory over Tottenham caught Robson’s eye and the former United captain thinks that bodes well for Louis van Gaal ahead of Sunday’s trip to Anfield. “Chris is a good defender,” Robson told Press Association Sport. “I have seen him improve over the last few games. I even thought against Arsenal and Newcastle away, his passing was a lot better, a lot crisper, so he has come on to a good game, he is in good form at the moment and that will be important at Liverpool.” Smalling kept 26-goal striker Harry Kane quiet last Sunday and the former Fulham man ventured forward, striding confidently with the ball at his feet on a few occasions. The end product was not good enough to suggest Van Gaal has a new Beckenbauer in his squad just yet, but Robson was so impressed by Smalling’s confidence that he felt moved to liken the centre-back to two United greats in Pallister and McGrath. The former lifted 10 trophies at United and the latter would have won much more than the 1985 FA Cup had he not fought a long-running battle with alcoholism which eventually cost him his place at the club. “Paul McGrath could do that and so could Gary Pallister,” Robson said when invited to liken Smalling’s display to a figure from the past. “When you keep possession at the back sometimes it’s really important that your defenders break past the forwards and they get into the midfield area. “That means one of your midfield players should be able to get space and I thought Chris did that particularly well against Tottenham and that made it difficult for the Tottenham players.” Smalling seemed pleased to be compared to two defensive stalwarts of the Sir Alex Ferguson era. “It’s a great feeling know that people are taking notice,” Smalling said. “I am just hoping I can keep it up and keep a good run and contribute to our results.” Smalling will have to be at his very best again on Sunday at Anfield. Van Gaal has warned the centre-back – and the rest of his team-mates – they must not get sent off in this volatile fixture. As well as pride and bragging rights, a place in the top four is at stake. Liverpool have not lost since they fell 3-0 at Old Trafford in December and a victory for the hosts would move them above United into fourth for the first time since August. Robson thinks victory against Liverpool would deliver a significant blow to the Reds’ top-four hopes and is not ruling out a second-place finish for United, who trail City by just two points after their loss at Burnley last weekend. “Yes, (second) is a realistic target,” the former United captain said. “We have to play City and Arsenal at home and if we beat both of them all of a sudden your points tally is looking really good. “When you talk about the top teams it seems as if you look at it like you are going to get beat all the time and the lads have proven that they can perform really well against a top team like Tottenham. “And a win at Liverpool at this stage of the season would be a fantastic result for us.” :: Bryan Robson and Chris Smalling were speaking at the launch of bwin Manchester United Casino – the world’s first club-based real money casino app which is available now on Android from bwin.com/manutdcasino and will be available soon on iOS through the App Store.
New Delhi: Behind every successful man, there is a woman. That is the age-old adage when one defines success. However, in the case of former India skipper MS Dhoni this phrase can be twisted in this way. Behind every successful man, there is a woman and a best friend. The world knows about Sakshi Dhoni and the role she has played in Dhoni’s success. However, silently, in the entire journey, one man has silently ensured that Dhoni is a colossus. Arun Pandey, the owner of Rhiti Sports Management, has ensured that the wicketkeeper-batsman from Ranchi is the biggest sports brands India has produced. In an exclusive chat with News Nation, Pandey spoke about the dynamics of branding, sports management and shared an unknown anecdote on Dhoni and his personality.“I remember in the early part of 2002 when Dhoni was in Delhi playing domestic cricket. He was put up in my house and one night, he went out with a friend on a bike. On the way, he decided to pack a burger and a coke for me. In those days, if you were caught in the South Extension red light, you would be stuck in hellish traffic for close to an hour. Despite getting stuck in traffic, he still held on to that packet and sat behind patiently. He gave it to me when I had not even asked for it. That showed how humble and genuine he is as a personality,” Pandey said. MS Dhoni has helped Chennai Super Kings to three IPL titles.MS Dhoni has won the World T20, ICC World Cup and Champions Trophy as skipper.Under MS Dhoni’s captaincy, India reached the No.1 ranking in Tests for the first time in 2009. From such humble beginnings, Dhoni has become the greatest cricketer and biggest brand that India has seen. From winning all three ICC trophies to being touted as the greatest captain of all time, Dhoni has seen comparisons with another great name in Indian cricket, Sachin Tendulkar. Tendulkar, who is considered the original gold standard when it came to batting, was also a colossus when it came to branding as a sportsman. However, Pandey is clear cut on who is the bigger sportsman when it came to a brand.“One cannot compare Sachin Tendulkar and MS Dhoni when it came to branding. Can you compare god to a disciple? For me, Tendulkar is the ultimate god. Dhoni is his disciple,” Pandey gushed with excitement.Pandey, who was himself a state-level cricketer and played First Class cricket representing Bihar and Jharkhand, spoke about how he made the plunge into sports management. “My policy is that if I do something, it has to be really good. I knew I had my limitations in cricket but I was passionate about branding and sports management. Of course, I do not have an MBA degree from Harvard or other prestigious institutions. However, I had the passion and I wanted to give 100 per cent to this and that is why I plunged into this field,” Pandey said.When Pandey started Rhiti Sports in 2007, India had still not opened the doors to digitalisation and social media. In the space of 12 years, Pandey admits that the entire landscape has changed comprehensively. “Increased digitilisation and social media have given a different dimension to branding and sports management. Digitalisation is a boon and it has helped us easily. When it comes to social media, it has given increased interaction with the fans and made the celebrity come closer to the audience,” Pandey said.Digitalisation and social media boom have seen Rhiti Sports get into other avenues, notably in fitness, football with regards to Chennaiyin FC and uniquely, into their new golfing venture Golf 7. When asked as to why take on a niche sport like golf, Pandey said, “The awareness for golf is growing in India. We are 30-40 years behind Europe when it comes to development and in creating great talent but we are ensuring that the interest level is built up.”Pandey also expressed positivity when asked about the scene of sports management in India. “There is massive potential in the country. I can only see an upward trend when it comes to sports management and the way how this field will develop in the next few years,” Pandey said. The 40-year-old, however, highlighted one basic problem when it came to this field. “The lack of professionalism in India is a major problem when it comes to sports management development,” Pandey rued.With Rhiti Sports making big strides in this field, the company has become a case study for success in sports management in the country. Pandey outlined the basic mantras to people who would want to take this field up in the near future. “Commitment, Passion and 100 per cent focus. These are the basic mantras for people who want to gain success in this field,” Pandey said. These three factors are the same characteristics which Dhoni embodies every single time he steps on to the playing field. Safe to say, he has acquired success. That too, plenty of it. highlights For all the Latest Sports News News, Cricket News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.
Montreal: Ferrari said on Sunday they will appeal against the five-second penalty that cost Sebastian Vettel victory in the Canadian Grand Prix. Five-time Formula One world champion Lewis Hamilton maintained Mercedes’ record winning start to the season when he was handed the controversial victory courtesy of a disputed stewards’ decision, despite crossing the finish line just behind the German. Vettel was deemed to have forced a charging Hamilton towards a wall after running off at a chicane and rejoining across a strip of grass. The Briton had to brake and pull out of his overtaking manoeuvre, prompting the stewards to impose the time penalty on Vettel. “Where could I go?” protested Vettel. “They’re stealing the race from us.” Ferrari team principal Mattia Binotto later said the team would be appealing against the penalty. “At the moment, we, as a team, are naturally disappointed,” said Binotto in a statement posted on the Ferrari official website. “As for Seb, I don’t think he could have done things differently, which is why we have decided to appeal the Stewards’ decision. Under the sport’s regulations, Ferrari has 96 hours from the end of the race to gather evidence to support their appeal. Vettel drove his car back to the garage instead of into parc ferme and refused to attend the post-race interviews.RELATED He stormed off to the Ferrari motor home before being persuaded by his team to return for the podium ceremonies. On the way, he walked into parc ferme and swapped the number one for the winner from in front of Hamilton’s Mercedes with the number two in front of the empty space for his car. The pro-Ferrari crowd booed Hamilton on the podium, but Vettel told them: “Don’t boo Lewis — you should boo these decisions, not him.” It was a record seventh victory in Canada for Hamilton and the 78th of his career. It extended Mercedes’ season-opening run to seven successive wins. Vettel was classified second ahead of his Ferrari team-mate Leclerc. Valtteri Bottas was fourth in the second Mercedes followed by Max Verstappen of Red Bull and Daniel Ricciardo of Renault. Hamilton had suffered problems before the start. A hydraulics leak, discovered in the morning, required two hours to strip down and repair his power unit and then a slow getaway for the formation lap created more alarm. But as the start lights went out, he kept cool to resist Leclerc and stay within sight of Vettel who built a lead of 1.6 seconds on the opening lap from pole position. Tyre wear was a key factor on the Isle Notre-Dame as track temperatures touched 50 Celsius and Hamilton bided his time. Vettel pitted from the lead for hard tyres on lap 25 and rejoined in third leaving Hamilton to push on his worn rubber as Vettel clocked the fastest lap behind new leader Leclerc. Leclerc led Vettel by 11.4sec on lap 30 but three laps later the gap was slashed to five seconds prompting Ferrari to bring in the Monegasque. Vettel led again by 2.3sec from Hamilton, who had also pitted, with Verstappen third, 10sec adrift as Leclerc rejoined in fourth. But on his fresh hard tyres, Hamilton looked revitalised and closed in on the German. Vettel responded with another fastest lap but with Hamilton applying constant pressure he finally twitched under braking at the first chicane with 22 laps of the 70-lap race to go, forcing him to cut across a strip of grass before squeezing Hamilton towards the wall. Stewards deemed him guilty of an “unsafe re-entry forcing another driver off the track” and the five-second penalty decided the outcome as Hamilton crossed the line 1.342sec behind Vettel. “Where could I go?” said an angry Vettel on team radio. “I had nowhere to go… They are stealing the race from us… This is the wrong world. This is not fair.” Lewis Hamilton secured his 78th career race win in F1.Sebastian Vettel had a five-second penalty imposed.Hamilton won for the seventh time in the Canadian Grand Prix. For all the Latest Sports News News, Other Sports News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps. highlights
– other disciplines promise to be similarly excitingTHE selection of teams desirous of participating in Sunday’s PNCR 60th Anniversary Day of Sports/ Family Fun Day is becoming increasingly difficult for Coordinator of the futsal segment, Wayne ‘Harry’ Griffith.According to Griffith, who spoke with the event coordinator yesterday, more and more teams are calling him, asking to be part of the day’s activity and the overwhelming response is creating headache for him, since he can only accommodate a certain number because of the one-day nature of the celebration.“I’ve had representatives from at least fifteen teams contact me via telephone, asking that they be part of the tournament and it is proving a difficult task for me to tell them no, but because we are only playing for one day, I’ve had to refuse some of them,” Griffith stated.The most popular referee in the futsal format informed that originally he had selected eight teams each from Georgetown and Linden, but has had to increase that number to accommodate three more teams from the respective communities to make it a total of twenty-two teams that will vie for top honours throughout the day.Griffith said Georgetown’s composition will include Sparta Boss, who is undoubtedly the most popular team in the shorter format, while new kids on the block, Future Stars, are also included in the lineup.The other teams invited are Leopold Street, Tiger Bay, Albouystown ‘A’, Back Circle, West Front Road, ‘Gold is Money’, Bent Street, Hustlers, OL Skool Ballers, and Broad Street.They will join Linden’s Silver Bullets, High Rollers, Swag Entertainment, Plantain & Cheese All Stars, Magics, Team 25, BlueBerry Hill, Mike’s Stars and Amelia’s Ward Russians.Meanwhile, a similar sort of buzz is permeating the dominoes, athletics and basketball disciplines.The domino fraternity is challenging the futsal group to see which discipline will provide more support for the day’s activity and according to the event’s organisers, it is too close to call.The caretakers of the sport promise to have teams from all across the country compete in the competition; so it is clear that the community of Linden will be flooded by Guyanese from every Region.The organisers are reminding all participants who will be using the transportation provided, that buses are scheduled to depart the Square of the Revolution at 07:30 hrs, so teams and representatives will have to be at the location 30 minutes before departure time to cater for a prompt 10:00 hrs start in Linden.