Few vets see pet chickens”During the manuscript’s review process, we did find a fewveteran veterinarians that knew the standard anesthesia processdidn’t work on chickens,” Wyatt said. “The chemicals that werebeing used work just fine on rats, cats, dogs and birds likepigeons and parrots. You just don’t find many veterinarians outthere performing surgery on pet chickens.”In the summer of 2002, Clifton and Varner reapplied to the YSPand were reassigned to Wyatt. That summer their research wasapplied in Wyatt’s laboratory. Isoflurane was used to performminor research surgeries on chickens.Isoflurane is expensive to use because you need an anesthesiamachine. But it’s more humane for the chickens and better forresearch. “The UGA avian genetics group is doing remarkableresearch using this method,” he said.YSP can be an invaluable learning experience for high schoolstudents, he said. It often helps them decide what they want tostudy in college.”The Young Scholars Program gives students an opportunity thattakes them from start to finish with a tangible product at theend,” he said.Varner is now a sophomore majoring in math education at UGA.Clifton is a sophomore majoring in health policy andadministration at the University of North Carolina.(Chowning Johnson is a student writer and Sharon Omahen a newseditor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural andEnvironmental Sciences.) The toe-pinch test revealed the problem”We uncovered this in the same way a doctor would with a humanpatient,” Wyatt said. “We put the chicken under, did a toe-pinchtest and saw a reaction.”They tested Ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam, injectableanesthetics, and Isoflurane gas, an inhalant anesthetic. All areused in surgery for mammals.They checked the chickens’ heart rates, respiration, bodytemperatures, blood glucose and response to moderate toe-pinchesat timed increments before, during and after the anesthesia use.The ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam didn’t achieve asurgical plane of anesthesia for the chickens. Ketamine withxylazine could even kill the chickens.Isoflurane produced a safe surgical plane of anesthesia for thechickens.Wyatt, Poulos and J. Roger Broderson, a former UGA director ofanimal care and use, helped Clifton and Varner prepare themanuscript that was published in “Lab Animal.” By Chowning Johnson &Sharon OmahenUniversity of GeorgiaIf you go to a hospital to have surgery, you want the anesthesiato work. Two Georgia high school students in a University ofGeorgia internship program have made sure it works for chickens,too.Jack Varner and Kelli Clifton participated in the UGA YoungScholars Program in 2001 and 2002. Their research on theeffectiveness of three anesthetic regimes on chickens waspublished in the peer-reviewed journal, “Lab Animal,” in May2004.The Young Scholars Program was started in 1999. The six-weeksummer program, matches high school students with scientists inthe UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Introducing students to common ag surgeriesRoger Wyatt, a UGA professor emeritus of poultry science, helpedVarner and Clifton design their experiment. He wanted to acquaintthem with simple small-animal surgeries.Chickens are commonly used in scientific research laboratories,Wyatt said.”We use chickens in our research at UGA because there are severalsimple surgical procedures students can perform easily on them,”he said. “You can teach a student to castrate a chicken, acommon agricultural procedure, and do so in a laboratory. It’sanalogous to doing the same thing to a steer.”Both students showed interest in pursuing careers in veterinaryor human medicine. “So this project was a perfect fit,” he said.Until this experiment, not much was known about regimes thatproduce a surgical level of anesthesia for chickens and not hurtthem.With the help of UGA veterinary student Stacy Poulos, they foundthat chemicals commonly used in animal anesthesia didn’t putchickens in a state in which they couldn’t feel pain.
North Carolina may take up securitization idea to speed coal plant closures FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Energy News Network:A controversial ratemaking bill in North Carolina contains a little-discussed section that — if amended — could offer a financing model to help Duke Energy close its coal-fired power plants sooner rather than later.Senate Bill 559 includes language authorizing the utility to recoup storm repair costs with bonds secured by ratepayers, a mechanism called securitization. The Duke-backed bill cleared the state Senate this month, but its pace has slowed in the House, primarily because of another provision that would allow upfront, annual rate hikes over multi-year periods.Clean energy advocates say lawmakers should sideline the bill’s ratemaking section and explore broadening the securitization tool to allow Duke to refinance the debt on its aging coal fleet.Duke Energy spent an estimated $571 million last year responding to hurricanes Florence and Michael, and Winter Storm Diego, according to nonpartisan legislative staff. Securitization would allow the utility to recover those expenses right away, rather than waiting for its next rate case.While clean energy advocates oppose the bill’s ratemaking section, they haven’t protested its securitization language. But, said Cassie Gavin, the lobbyist for the North Carolina Sierra Club, “we don’t see why it should be so limited.” Gavin and other advocates say Duke could use securitized bonds for other uses, including paying off the debt on its fleet of decades-old coal-fired power plants, allowing the utility to shut them down years ahead of schedule.The company has closed or converted half of its coal-fired power plant fleet since 2011 and plans to close five more units in the next five years. But its latest long-range plans show it will keep 15 units running until they have fully depreciated, in many cases past 2033. One 844-megawatt facility west of Charlotte, called Cliffside 6, is slated to operate until 2048. Advocates argue keeping these plants open until their value has fully depreciated is uneconomical, with their ongoing costs increasingly more expensive than building new renewable generation or other sources of power.More: In controversial N.C. ratemaking bill, a tool to help retire Duke coal plants