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first_imgReal are top moneymakers LONDON (AP): Real Madrid are football’s biggest moneymakers for the 11th straight year, while Bayern Munich dropped to their lowest position in eight years. Madrid’s revenue of US$628 million in 2014-15 kept them top of the Football Money League compiled by accountancy firm Deloitte. The revenue of the world’s top 20 clubs, which are all European and include nine from the Premier League, grew 8 percent year-to-year to US$7.2 billion. European and Spanish champions Barcelona regained second place by generating US$609 million, displacing Manchester United, who made US$560 million while still struggling on the pitch in the post-Alex Ferguson era. French champion Paris Saint-Germain climbed to fourth by generating US$522 million, followed by Bayern on US$515 million. Napoli coach Sarri banned MILAN (AP): Napoli coach Maurizio Sarri has been banned for two Italian Cup matches and fined US$22,000 for “directing extremely insulting epithets” toward his Inter Milan counterpart, Roberto Mancini. Sarri was sanctioned after making anti-gay slurs to Mancini during Napoli’s 2-0 loss in the quarterfinals on Tuesday. Napoli says yesterday’s decision “formally clarifies” that Sarri’s comments were delivered in anger but were not driven by racist or anti-gay discrimination. The club says it hopes Mancini “can accept the apologies which have repeatedly been offered.” Mancini was fined US$5,422 for “an intimidating attitude toward the coach of the opposing team, who had insulted him” and for being “disrespectful” toward the fourth official in the dressing room after the match. Chelsea player joins Werder Bremen on loan BREMEN, Germany (AP): Chelsea defender Papy Djilobodji has joined Werder Bremen on loan until the end of the season. The Bundesliga club announced the deal yesterday without giving financial details. Werder Bremen are 16th in the Bundesliga and face a struggle against relegation when the campaign resumes this weekend after the winter break. The club needed a defender after the departure of Assani Lukimya for China. Djilobodji could make his debut on Sunday at Schalke. He arrived in Chelsea last summer from the French club Nantes and made only one brief League Cup appearance in September.last_img read more

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New research explains how diamond rich kimberlite makes its way to Earths

first_imgPicture of a diamond-bearing kimberlite rock, from a mine somewhere in the US. (Diamonds are not visible). Image: Wikipedia. Citation: New research explains how diamond rich kimberlite makes its way to Earth’s surface (2012, January 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-diamond-rich-kimberlite-earth-surface.html More information: Kimberlite ascent by assimilation-fuelled buoyancy, Nature 481, 352–356 (19 January 2012) doi:10.1038/nature10740AbstractKimberlite magmas have the deepest origin of all terrestrial magmas and are exclusively associated with cratons. During ascent, they travel through about 150 kilometres of cratonic mantle lithosphere and entrain seemingly prohibitive loads (more than 25 per cent by volume) of mantle-derived xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond). Kimberlite magmas also reputedly have higher ascent rates than other xenolith-bearing magmas. Exsolution of dissolved volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) is thought to be essential to provide sufficient buoyancy for the rapid ascent of these dense, crystal-rich magmas. The cause and nature of such exsolution, however, remains elusive and is rarely specified. Here we use a series of high-temperature experiments to demonstrate a mechanism for the spontaneous, efficient and continuous production of this volatile phase. This mechanism requires parental melts of kimberlite to originate as carbonatite-like melts. In transit through the mantle lithosphere, these silica-undersaturated melts assimilate mantle minerals, especially orthopyroxene, driving the melt to more silicic compositions, and causing a marked drop in carbon dioxide solubility. The solubility drop manifests itself immediately in a continuous and vigorous exsolution of a fluid phase, thereby reducing magma density, increasing buoyancy, and driving the rapid and accelerating ascent of the increasingly kimberlitic magma. Our model provides an explanation for continuous ascent of magmas laden with high volumes of dense mantle cargo, an explanation for the chemical diversity of kimberlite, and a connection between kimberlites and cratons. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Kimberlite, a type of magma that is normally found deep within the Earth’s crust is known to somehow make its way to the surface at times, and when it does, it quite often has diamonds in it. Scientists have long believed that some process whereby some unknown substance being dissolved in water and carbon dioxide was responsible and that the rise was likely rapid, but other than that, had no real good explanation of how they moved upwards. Now, the riddle appears to be solved. Canadian volcanologist Kelly Russell and his colleagues at the University of British Columbia, as they describe in their upcoming paper in Nature, believe that when hot rising magma runs into silica rich minerals, carbon dioxide laden foam is released, forcing the minerals to the surface.center_img Russell says the leap was made when he and some colleagues tried heating rock samples to 1000°C to mimic the conditions found beneath the Earth’s surface. At one point, he tried sprinkling a silica rich mineral on the hot rocks to see what would happen. After just a few minutes, he writes, there was this foaming, and he and his colleague all knew at once that they’d solved the mystery.It works like this, they say. When molten rock heavy with carbonate bubbles upwards, it at some point comes into contact with silica laden minerals. All this happens in an upper part of the mantel, where the rock typically has some amount of orthopyroxene in it. Carbon dioxide then bubbles upwards and out of the molten material making the magma buoyant. As it encounters more silica material, it becomes foamier and rises even faster, pushing its way to the surface in as little as just a few hours. The whole process keeps going because of the heat generated by the crystallization of other minerals. When they are exhausted, the process stops.The whole process results in rocks, such as kimberlite being pushed to the surface, where many thousands or millions of years later, humans find them and begin extracting the diamonds that went along for the ride.Because kimberlite, named for the town of Kimberly in South Africa where many early diamond mines were dug, is dense with crystals, it should be rather heavy, which would suggest trouble in pushing it up towards the surface. And while it does indeed appear to start out very heavy, it gets lighter as carbon dioxide is released in the reaction with the silicate material, allowing it to more easily be forced to the surface. Geologists Discover Magma and Carbon Dioxide Combine to Make ‘Soda-Pop’ Eruption Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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