Glucose biofuel cells may soon power implants

first_img More information: Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, et al. (2010) A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10476. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010476 Citation: Glucose biofuel cells may soon power implants (2010, May 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from The team, led by biomedical engineer Philippe Cinquin, found in one rat the device could produce up 6.5 microwatts, and electrical output remained stable at two microwatts for 11 days, after which the rat was sacrificed. They calculated they obtained a maximum specific power of 24.4 microwatts per milliliter, which exceeds a pacemaker’s requirement of 10 microwatts.The second rat was monitored for three months, and throughout the period its urine contained gluconate, a byproduct of glucose oxidation, indicating the device was still working. When this rat was sacrificed and dissected the scientists found a new vascular network had developed around the implant, and there was no sign of inflammation.Cinquin said he was optimistic the efficiency could be improved, and achieving electrical outputs in the tens of milliwatts is not unrealistic in larger animals. He said he could see no reason why the devices could not work in people, and hoped to see them developed for use in humans within five to 10 years.The biofuel cell could find application in devices such as insulin pumps, artificial urinary sphincters, biosensors, bone growth simulators and drug delivery devices as well as pacemakers. The research team want to continue their research by testing glucose biofuel cells in larger animals and for longer periods.The paper is available online at PLos One. Explore further Summary of the principle, preparation, implantation and operation of an implantable “Quinone-Ubiquinone Glucose BioFuel Cell”. See the original paper for more details. Image: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010476 The device consists of electrodes of compressed graphite containing enzyme catalysts for the oxidation of glucose and chemicals called redox mediators. Redox mediators transport the electric charge from the enzymes to the electrodes leading from the fuel cell to the device it is powering. Glucose oxidase and ubiquinone were at the anode, while polyphenol oxidase and quinine were at the cathode.The enzymes and redox mediators are contained within a dialysis bag that keeps them inside but allows glucose and oxygen obtained from the bodily fluids to pass through. The devices were implanted into the rats’ abdominal cavities and in one case monitored for three months. Once in place the enzymes triggered the oxidation of glucose, which generated electrical energy.The research team, from the Joseph Fourier University, found that confining the enzymes to discs of graphite placed inside dialysis bags overcame the problems found in previous attempts at developing glucose biofuel cells (GBFCs), such as inhibition of the reaction by charged particles in the surrounding body fluids, or the need for low pH conditions. Implants containing both GOX and catalase, immobilized on barium alginate beads, in dialysis tubing wrapped in an exPTFE coating. (A) Before implantation. (B) After 3 months of implantation. A neo-vascular network can be seen, no sign of inflammation is present, proving the good tolerance of the rat for the implant. Image credit: PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010476 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Photosynthesis: a new source of electrical energy © 2010 ( — Researchers in Grenoble, France have for the first time successfully implanted glucose biofuel cells in living rats. The results suggest such cells may one day use the body’s own glucose and oxygen supplies to power human implants and avoid the necessity for surgical replacement when the batteries are nearing the end of their lives.last_img read more

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New research explains how diamond rich kimberlite makes its way to Earths

first_imgPicture of a diamond-bearing kimberlite rock, from a mine somewhere in the US. (Diamonds are not visible). Image: Wikipedia. Citation: New research explains how diamond rich kimberlite makes its way to Earth’s surface (2012, January 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from More information: Kimberlite ascent by assimilation-fuelled buoyancy, Nature 481, 352–356 (19 January 2012) doi:10.1038/nature10740AbstractKimberlite magmas have the deepest origin of all terrestrial magmas and are exclusively associated with cratons. During ascent, they travel through about 150 kilometres of cratonic mantle lithosphere and entrain seemingly prohibitive loads (more than 25 per cent by volume) of mantle-derived xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond). Kimberlite magmas also reputedly have higher ascent rates than other xenolith-bearing magmas. Exsolution of dissolved volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) is thought to be essential to provide sufficient buoyancy for the rapid ascent of these dense, crystal-rich magmas. The cause and nature of such exsolution, however, remains elusive and is rarely specified. Here we use a series of high-temperature experiments to demonstrate a mechanism for the spontaneous, efficient and continuous production of this volatile phase. This mechanism requires parental melts of kimberlite to originate as carbonatite-like melts. In transit through the mantle lithosphere, these silica-undersaturated melts assimilate mantle minerals, especially orthopyroxene, driving the melt to more silicic compositions, and causing a marked drop in carbon dioxide solubility. The solubility drop manifests itself immediately in a continuous and vigorous exsolution of a fluid phase, thereby reducing magma density, increasing buoyancy, and driving the rapid and accelerating ascent of the increasingly kimberlitic magma. Our model provides an explanation for continuous ascent of magmas laden with high volumes of dense mantle cargo, an explanation for the chemical diversity of kimberlite, and a connection between kimberlites and cratons. © 2011 Explore further ( — Kimberlite, a type of magma that is normally found deep within the Earth’s crust is known to somehow make its way to the surface at times, and when it does, it quite often has diamonds in it. Scientists have long believed that some process whereby some unknown substance being dissolved in water and carbon dioxide was responsible and that the rise was likely rapid, but other than that, had no real good explanation of how they moved upwards. Now, the riddle appears to be solved. Canadian volcanologist Kelly Russell and his colleagues at the University of British Columbia, as they describe in their upcoming paper in Nature, believe that when hot rising magma runs into silica rich minerals, carbon dioxide laden foam is released, forcing the minerals to the surface.center_img Russell says the leap was made when he and some colleagues tried heating rock samples to 1000°C to mimic the conditions found beneath the Earth’s surface. At one point, he tried sprinkling a silica rich mineral on the hot rocks to see what would happen. After just a few minutes, he writes, there was this foaming, and he and his colleague all knew at once that they’d solved the mystery.It works like this, they say. When molten rock heavy with carbonate bubbles upwards, it at some point comes into contact with silica laden minerals. All this happens in an upper part of the mantel, where the rock typically has some amount of orthopyroxene in it. Carbon dioxide then bubbles upwards and out of the molten material making the magma buoyant. As it encounters more silica material, it becomes foamier and rises even faster, pushing its way to the surface in as little as just a few hours. The whole process keeps going because of the heat generated by the crystallization of other minerals. When they are exhausted, the process stops.The whole process results in rocks, such as kimberlite being pushed to the surface, where many thousands or millions of years later, humans find them and begin extracting the diamonds that went along for the ride.Because kimberlite, named for the town of Kimberly in South Africa where many early diamond mines were dug, is dense with crystals, it should be rather heavy, which would suggest trouble in pushing it up towards the surface. And while it does indeed appear to start out very heavy, it gets lighter as carbon dioxide is released in the reaction with the silicate material, allowing it to more easily be forced to the surface. Geologists Discover Magma and Carbon Dioxide Combine to Make ‘Soda-Pop’ Eruption Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Physicists create tabletop antimatter gun

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Positrons are anti-particles, the opposite twin of electrons. Besides being created in physics labs, they are also found in jets emitted by black holes and pulsars. To date, the creation of positrons for study has involved very big and expensive machines. One of those is the particle accelerator at CERN. Another is a device built by scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that created positrons by firing a hugely powerful laser at a tiny disc made of gold. Other recent work by researchers at the University of Texas has involved building a desktop sized accelerator. This new effort builds on that work—this team has built a device not more than a meter long that is capable of generating short bursts of both electrons and positrons, very similar they report, to what is emitted by black holes and pulsars.To achieve this feat, the team fired a petawatt laser at a sample of inert helium gas. Doing so caused the creation of a stream of electrons moving at very high speed. Those electrons were directed at a very thin sheet of metal foil which caused them to smash into individual metal atoms. Those collisions resulted in a stream of electron and positron emissions—the two were then separated using magnets.The researchers report that each blast of their gun lasts just 30 femtoseconds, but each firing results in the production of quadrillions of positrons—a density level comparable to those produced at CERN. The researchers suggest their device could be used to mimic the jet streams from black holes and/or pulsars, hopefully offering some answers to questions such as, what sort of proportion of particles are present in such streams, how much energy is in them, and in what ways do the particles in them interact with the environment into which they are spewed. Explore further Journal information: Physical Review Letters Citation: Physicists create tabletop antimatter ‘gun’ (2013, June 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from ( —An international team of physicists working at the University of Michigan has succeeded in building a tabletop antimatter “gun” capable of spewing short bursts of positrons. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team describes how they created the gun, what it’s capable of doing, and to what use it may be put.center_img a. Top-view of the experimental setup. Plastic and Tefon shielding was inserted to reduce the noise due to low energy divergent particles and x-rays. b. Typical positron signal as recorded by the Image Plate. The region labelled with gamma noise is predominantly exposed by the gamma-rays escaping the solid target. c. Typical signal of the electron beam as recorded on the LANEX screen, without a solid target and d. extracted spectrum. Credit: © 2013 More information: Table-Top Laser-Based Source of Femtosecond, Collimated, Ultrarelativistic Positron Beams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 255002 (2013). . On Arxiv: generation of ultrarelativistic positron beams with short duration (τe+≃30  fs), small divergence (θe+≃3  mrad), and high density (ne+≃1014–1015  cm-3) from a fully optical setup is reported. The detected positron beam propagates with a high-density electron beam and γ rays of similar spectral shape and peak energy, thus closely resembling the structure of an astrophysical leptonic jet. It is envisaged that this experimental evidence, besides the intrinsic relevance to laser-driven particle acceleration, may open the pathway for the small-scale study of astrophysical leptonic jets in the laboratory.via Synopsis Still in the dark about dark matterlast_img read more

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Best of Last WeekHow to put living organism into supposition state linking

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Feeling anxious? Check your orbitofrontal cortex and cultivate your optimism Explore further (—It has been a very interesting week for physics, particularly for those researchers working in applied areas, one team at the Paul Scherrer Institute created a synthetic material out of a billion tiny magnets that mimic steam, water and ice. And a pair of researchers, one in the U.S. and the other in Iran, found that a spinning ring on a table behaves more like a boomerang than a coin—they believe it is due to the hole allowing air to pass through. Citation: Best of Last Week-How to put living organism into supposition state, linking human brains and brain part tied to anxiety (2015, September 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from read more

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Three teams independently show dipolar quantum gasses support state of supersolid properties

first_img , arXiv , Physical Review X Ultracold quantum mix In a Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar atoms (white arrows), dense “droplets” (dark blue) will form because of the intricate interplay among the trapping potential (gray line), the atoms’ dipolar and contact interactions, and quantum fluctuations. The Modugno, Pfau, and Ferlaino teams created the conditions to achieve coherence between the individual droplets, which is mediated by the background of Bose-condensed atoms (light blue) in the trap. This coherence provides an indirect signature of supersolidity. Credit: APS/Alan Stonebraker/ Physics More information: L. Tanzi et al. Observation of a Dipolar Quantum Gas with Metastable Supersolid Properties, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.130405 Fabian Böttcher et al. Transient Supersolid Properties in an Array of Dipolar Quantum Droplets, Physical Review X (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.011051Long-lived and transient supersolid behaviors in dipolar quantum gases, arXiv:1903.04375 [cond-mat.quant-gas] Journal information: Physical Review Letters © 2019 Science X Networkcenter_img Explore further Three teams of researchers working independently of one another have shown that certain dipolar quantum gases are able to support a state of supersolid properties. A team led by Giovanni Modugno of the University of Florence has published their findings in Physical Review Letters. The second team, led by Tilman Pfau of the University of Stuttgart, has published their findings in Physical Review X, and the third, led by Francesca Ferlaino of the University of Innsbruck has uploaded their findings to the arXiv preprint server. Supersolids are theorized materials with atoms that are arranged in the spatial periodicity of crystals, but are able to flow like a liquid when exposed to extremely cold conditions. In essence, they are solids that can flow like a liquid. Because of their unique characteristics, researchers have tried to create them in the lab, but until now, have met with little success. In these three new efforts, all three teams claim to have used theory and experimentation to show dipolar quantum gasses can support a state of supersolid properties—all three teams accomplished this using Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), which are notably superfluids.Most efforts to create supersolids have started with attempts to force a superfluid into a crystal-like structure while maintaining its ability to flow—but such efforts have not panned out. Back in 2003, two teams of researchers proposed the idea of engineering atomic interactions by way of long-range dipolar coupling—an idea that showed promise but still did not lead to the creation of a supersolid. All three teams in these new efforts have based their efforts on this idea by using BECs because they have naturally strong magnetic dipole moments, believed to be a necessary part of creating a supersolid.All three teams worked with the idea that dense “droplets” will form in a BEC under the right conditions, in which just the right interactions would result in coherence between the droplets, allowing for the creation of a crystalline structure—all while maintaining the flow properties of the original BEC.Two of the teams, those led by Modugno and Pfau, used the isotope dysprosium-162 in their work because of the repulsive forces that dominate dipolar interactions. The third team used two other isotopes, dysprosium-164 and erbium-166 because of their dominant dipolar interactions. In the end, all three demonstrated that dipolar gases can be used to show properties of a supersolid in a material. Citation: Three teams independently show dipolar quantum gasses support state of supersolid properties (2019, April 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Delhis classical foot forward

first_imgWeekends in Delhi are more than just enjoying a good family time. The city has become a stage, as delightful performances by different cultural institutions at all three Dilli Haats are the highlight of everyone’s weekend. Delhi Tourism in collaboration with Department of Art, Culture and Languages, has been organising Dilli Haat Utsav, a unique festival to light up the cultural ambiance of Delhi. This festival is marked by diverse cultural programs and institutions like Sahitya Kala Parishad, Hindi Academy, Urdu Academy, and Sanskrit Academy etc. are showcasing musical evenings, Kavi Sammelan, Mushaira and dance presentations. Artistes from around the city gave an exclusive platform to perform and unveil their talent. Performers of Himalaya Arts from Hindi Academy presented a cultural programme on saturday at Dilli Haat INA, while Janak Puri witnessed Sanskritik Geet – Sangeet by Mani Kumar Jha and Group from Sanskrit Academy. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The performers at Dilli Haat Janak Puri started with Vande Mataram and continued with 7-8 melodies including bhajans, sufi sangeet and other patriotic songs. They work as teachers at DAV school and have been performing at platforms alike from the past 8-10 years. The cultural evening at Dilli Haat Janak Puri was attended by Dharmendra Kumar, Secretary, Sanskrit Academy. Performances at both venues drew people in large numbers and captivated them for an animated evening.Delicious and delectable food items from various cuisines in the country were also be served with as much love. An elaborate presentation and sale of handicraft and handlooms items accompanied to satisfy the shopping appetite.last_img read more

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Good Governance Centre plans to have ecabinet files from January

first_img“The government’s intention is that from January onwards, we must have all cabinet files in an e-format. Normally, hard copies of bulky cabinet files are circulated. They should be digitalised and computerised,” Food Minister Ram Vilas Paswan told his officers on the eve of ‘Good Governance Day’.Emphasising the need to move towards creating an ‘e-office’, the minister asked his officers to implement the slogan ‘Less government, more governance’ in true spirit. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashHe also shared that in seven months of the government, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has laid emphasis on two things — good governance and development of the country. “Towards this direction, PM is in direct touch with secretaries. PMO is active and gives direction and guidance on all important issues,” he said, adding that good governance is important to ensure the system keeps functioning even if bureaucrats/ministers come and go. Assuring the minister of achieving better governance, Food Secretary Sudhir Kumar said, “Action has been taken to move towards e-files in our Department. All possible steps are being taken in this direction.”Paswan addressed officers of his department to explain to them the spirit behind celebrating December 25 as good governance day which. BJP has made elaborate arrangements for former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s 90th birthday on Thursday which will be observed as national “Good Governance Day”.last_img read more

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Bangladeshi currency clothes recovered from IndoBangla border

first_imgBalurghat: BSF jawans posted in Hili border area recovered Bangladeshi notes around Rs 16,00,000 having valued at Rs 12,58,466 in Indian currency as per market rate from Ujal area located at extreme Indo-Bangla border on Sunday night, official sources of 199, Battalion of BSF confirmed the incident. BSF also recovered some fresh shirts and trousers. Later, the items were handed over to the customs.According to BSF sources, it is learnt that the Bangladeshi currencies were left abandoned in a jute bag. No one has been arrested so far. A probe has been on. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHaving learnt from a reliable source about the foreign currencies, acting on a tip off by senior BSF officials of 199, Battalion recovered the cash and clothes. BSF sources further informed that the currencies might have been taken to India from Bangladesh through Hili border area, under cover of darkness for gold smuggling.”Several cross border foreign currency smuggling rackets are active in the region. In most cases, the International smugglers use to take advantage as a long stretch of this district still remains unfenced that helps them to operate the rackets from both ends,” said a BSF officer. According to senior BSF officials, recently BSF patrolling particularly at night has been intensified to curb the nuisance. Several long-range night vision lights have also been introduced to carry on the tasks more perfectly, it is learnt.last_img read more

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Sunny Leone finds Priyanka Chopra Jack of all trades

first_imgShe said: “Who do I think great actress? I always loved Vidya Balan and I think Kangana (Ranaut) does an amazing job as well.”“Priyanka Chopra, I think, is a Jack of all trades. She does it all. I think she is probably one of the most inspiring women in Bollywood. I look at articles and I see everything that she is doing (here) and when I go back to the US, there I see her billboards.” “It feels proud that when you are in another country and you see a billboard of her. Then you go like, ‘Yes, she is Indian, she is from where I am from.’ I think she is very inspiring.”On the film front, Sunny will be next seen opposite Tushhar Kapoor and Vir Das in Mastizaade. The Mary Kom actress is making her debut in production with Madamji. The movie is co-produced by Madhur Bhandarkar and is still in its pre-production stage.last_img read more

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